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One of the most important factors to consider when deciding if a child would benefit from Speech Therapy, is to take into account if there is a communication breakdown due to poor speech intelligibility. There could be numerous factors, including phonological processes, muscle weakness and lack of oral musculature control that could be affecting speech production. Phonological Processes are patterns of sound errors that typically developing children use to simplify speech as they are learning to talk. A phonological disorder occurs when phonological processes persist beyond the age when most typically developing children have stopped using them or when the processes used are much different than what would be expected. Below is a list of the most highly occurring phonological processes.


Backing                                                ‘kuck’ for ‘duck’
Age of Elimination: Seen in more severe delays

 
Initial Consonant Deletion            ‘uppy’ for ‘puppy
Age of Elimination: Seen in more severe delays

 
Denasalization                                    ‘doe’ for ‘no’
Age of Elimination: 2 ½ years old

 
Assimilation                                                ‘bub’ for ‘bus’
Age of Elimination: 3 years old

 
Final Consonant Deletion                        ‘sa’ for  ‘sock’
Age of Elimination: 3 years old


Affrication                                                ‘jay’ for ‘day’
Age of Elimination: 3 years old

 
Stopping                                                ‘pun’ for ‘fun’
Age of Elimination: /f,s/: 3 /v,z/ 3 ½ /sh,ch, j/ 4 ½ years old


Reduplication                                    ‘wawa’ for ‘water’
Age of Elimination: 3 ½ years old

 
Fronting                                                 ‘tar’ for ‘car’
Age of Elimination: 3 ½ years old

 
Weak Syllable Deletion                        ‘nana’ for ‘banana’
Age of Elimination: 4 years old
 

Cluster Reduction                                     ‘gue’ for ‘glue'
Age of Elimination: 4 years old

 
Deaffrication                                    ‘share’ for ‘chair’
Age of Elimination: 4 years oldType your paragraph here.